Disability Accommodation in California Employment Law: A Comprehensive Guide

In California, the rights of employees with disabilities are robustly protected under state law. The principles of inclusion and equality are enshrined in various legislative measures, ensuring that individuals with disabilities are granted fair treatment and necessary accommodations in the workplace. Understanding these rights is essential for both employees and employers to foster a supportive and compliant work environment.

Understanding Disability Under California Law

California’s Fair Employment and Housing Act (FEHA) defines disability broadly, encompassing both physical and mental impairments that limit one or more major life activities. This includes, but is not limited to, conditions such as:

  • Physical disabilities: impairments affecting the body’s systems, including neurological, musculoskeletal, respiratory, cardiovascular, reproductive, digestive, genitourinary, hemic and lymphatic, skin, and endocrine.
  • Mental disabilities: mental or psychological disorders or conditions, such as intellectual disabilities, emotional or mental illness, and specific learning disabilities.

The law also protects individuals with a history of such disabilities and those perceived to have a disability.

Employer Obligations Under FEHA

Under FEHA, employers in California are required to provide reasonable accommodations to employees with disabilities. These accommodations are modifications or adjustments to the job, work environment, or the way things are usually done, enabling employees with disabilities to perform essential job functions. Here are key obligations for employers:

  1. Interactive Process: Employers must engage in a timely, good-faith interactive process with the employee to determine effective reasonable accommodations. This process involves open communication between the employer and employee to identify the limitations caused by the disability and discuss possible accommodations.
  2. Reasonable Accommodations: These can include a range of adjustments, such as:
    • Making existing facilities accessible.
    • Job restructuring, part-time or modified work schedules.
    • Acquiring or modifying equipment or devices.
    • Providing qualified readers or interpreters.
    • Reassigning the employee to a vacant position.
  3. Non-Discrimination: Employers must not discriminate against individuals with disabilities in any aspect of employment, including hiring, promotion, job assignments, termination, and benefits.
  4. Prohibition of Retaliation: It is unlawful for an employer to retaliate against an employee for requesting accommodations or asserting their rights under FEHA.

What Constitutes an Undue Hardship?

While employers are required to provide reasonable accommodations, they are not obligated to do so if it would cause an “undue hardship.” This is defined as an action requiring significant difficulty or expense when considered in light of factors such as:

  • The nature and cost of the accommodation needed.
  • The overall financial resources of the facility involved.
  • The number of persons employed at the facility.
  • The effect on expenses and resources, or the impact on the operation of the facility.

Employers must carefully consider these factors before claiming undue hardship, as the burden of proof lies with them.

Employee Rights and Responsibilities

Employees with disabilities also have responsibilities to ensure the accommodation process is effective. They should:

  1. Request Accommodations: Employees must inform their employer of their disability and the need for accommodations. This does not require disclosing specific medical details but providing enough information to indicate the nature of the disability and its impact on work.
  2. Participate in the Interactive Process: Employees should actively participate in discussions with their employer to identify possible accommodations.
  3. Provide Documentation: When requested, employees may need to provide documentation from a healthcare provider to substantiate the disability and the need for accommodation.

Enforcement and Remedies

Employees who believe their rights under FEHA have been violated can file a complaint with the California Department of Fair Employment and Housing (DFEH). If the DFEH finds merit in the complaint, it can pursue remedies such as:

  • Reinstatement or hiring.
  • Back pay and benefits.
  • Compensatory damages for emotional distress.
  • Punitive damages.
  • Reasonable attorney’s fees and costs.


Disability accommodation in California employment law aims to create an inclusive and equitable work environment for individuals with disabilities. Both employers and employees must understand their rights and responsibilities to navigate this landscape effectively. By fostering a culture of communication and cooperation, workplaces can become more inclusive, benefiting all parties involved. Whether you are an employer seeking to comply with legal requirements or an employee advocating for your rights, staying informed about FEHA’s provisions is crucial in ensuring a fair and accommodating workplace.