Understanding Religious Discrimination in the Workplace Under California Employment Law


In California, a state known for its progressive stance on employee rights, religious discrimination in the workplace is a critical issue that demands attention. The California Fair Employment and Housing Act (FEHA) and Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 provide robust protections against discrimination based on religion, ensuring that employees can work in an environment free from bias and prejudice. This blog post delves into the nuances of religious discrimination in the workplace, highlighting the legal protections available and offering guidance on how both employers and employees can navigate this complex issue.

What Constitutes Religious Discrimination?

Religious discrimination occurs when an employee is treated unfairly because of their religious beliefs or practices. This includes not only traditional, organized religions like Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Hinduism, and Buddhism but also sincerely held ethical or moral beliefs. Under California Employment Law, discrimination can manifest in various forms, including:

  1. Hiring and Firing: Refusing to hire or terminating an employee due to their religious beliefs.
  2. Promotion and Compensation: Denying promotions or fair compensation based on an employee’s religion.
  3. Work Environment: Creating a hostile work environment where an employee is harassed or intimidated due to their religious practices.
  4. Accommodation: Failing to provide reasonable accommodations for an employee’s religious practices, such as allowing time off for religious holidays or permitting religious attire.

Legal Protections Against Religious Discrimination

California Fair Employment and Housing Act (FEHA)

FEHA is a state law that offers comprehensive protection against workplace discrimination, including religious discrimination. Under FEHA, employers with five or more employees are prohibited from discriminating against employees or job applicants based on their religion. The law mandates that employers must make reasonable accommodations for an employee’s religious practices unless it causes undue hardship to the business.

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

Title VII is a federal law that prohibits employers with 15 or more employees from discriminating based on religion. Similar to FEHA, Title VII requires employers to provide reasonable accommodations for religious practices unless it poses an undue hardship. The burden of proof lies with the employer to demonstrate that accommodating an employee’s religious practices would be significantly difficult or expensive.

Examples of Reasonable Accommodations

Reasonable accommodations for religious practices might include:

  • Flexible scheduling for religious observances.
  • Dress code exceptions to allow religious attire.
  • Allowing prayer breaks during the workday.
  • Modifying workplace policies that conflict with religious practices.

What Constitutes Undue Hardship?

While employers are required to accommodate religious practices, there are limits. An accommodation is considered an undue hardship if it involves significant difficulty or expense for the employer. Factors considered when determining undue hardship include the nature and cost of the accommodation, the overall financial resources of the business, and the impact of the accommodation on the operation of the business.

Steps for Employees Facing Religious Discrimination

If you believe you are facing religious discrimination at work, consider the following steps:

  1. Document the Discrimination: Keep detailed records of discriminatory incidents, including dates, times, and witnesses.
  2. Report the Discrimination: Notify your supervisor or human resources department in writing about the discrimination.
  3. File a Complaint: If the issue is not resolved internally, you can file a complaint with the California Department of Fair Employment and Housing (DFEH) or the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC).
  4. Seek Legal Assistance: Consult with an employment lawyer who specializes in discrimination cases to explore your legal options.

Best Practices for Employers

Employers can take proactive steps to prevent religious discrimination and ensure compliance with California Employment Law:

  • Training and Education: Provide training for employees and management on religious discrimination and accommodation.
  • Policy Development: Develop and enforce clear anti-discrimination policies that include procedures for requesting religious accommodations.
  • Inclusive Environment: Foster an inclusive workplace culture that respects and values diverse religious beliefs.


Religious discrimination in the workplace undermines the principles of fairness and equality that are fundamental to California’s employment laws. By understanding the legal protections available and taking proactive steps to accommodate religious practices, both employers and employees can contribute to a respectful and inclusive work environment. If you are facing religious discrimination, remember that you have the right to seek justice and protect your rights under the law.

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